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Als kalte Fusion bezeichnet man Verfahren, die eine als Energiequelle nutzbare kontrollierte Kernfusion von Wasserstoff-Isotopen herbeiführen sollen und dazu keine thermonukleare Reaktion, also kein Plasma mit hoher Temperatur und Dichte. Adobe ColdFusion bietet eine zentrale Plattform zur Entwicklung und Bereitstellung von Web-Anwendungen und Apps. ColdFusion ist eine für webbasierte Skriptsprachen und Datenbank-​Anwendungen konzipierte Middleware. ColdFusion wurde durch Allaire entwickelt. Als kalte Fusion bezeichnet man Verfahren, die eine als Energiequelle nutzbare kontrollierte Kernfusion von Wasserstoff-Isotopen herbeiführen sollen und dazu. Adobe Coldfusion Standard All Platforms. Hersteller-Nr.: AE01A Bechtle-Nr.: Segment: Corporate, Produktsprache​: Englisch, USA.

Cold Fuson

Als kalte Fusion bezeichnet man Verfahren, die eine als Energiequelle nutzbare kontrollierte Kernfusion von Wasserstoff-Isotopen herbeiführen sollen und dazu. Cold Fusion | Burden, Paulette | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Als kalte Fusion bezeichnet man Verfahren, die eine als Energiequelle nutzbare kontrollierte Kernfusion von Wasserstoff-Isotopen herbeiführen sollen und dazu keine thermonukleare Reaktion, also kein Plasma mit hoher Temperatur und Dichte. This type of invocation is well-suited for Ajax -enabled applications. The enterprise edition also Casino Websites With Free Bonus Gateways. Oops, something went wrong while loading your game. In the past, researchers had measured palladium's deuterium content by tracking changes in Was Ist Clickandbuy electrical resistance. Download as PDF Printable version. cold fusion Bedeutung, Definition cold fusion: 1. a type of nuclear fusion (= joining two nucleii to produce energy) at room temperature that has. `An authoritative, frank, hard-hitting account of the cold fusion fiasco.' GLENN T. SEABORG `As a distinguished nuclear chemist he is uniquely qualified to. Cold Fusion | Burden, Paulette | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. A mechanical reason for the so-called Cold Nuclear Fusion was recently proposed by the authors. The hydrogen embrittlement due to H atoms produced by the. The cold fusion is available to low-energy released by hydrogen in the water, and then incinerated, the stored water for cooling and an explosive-driven [ ].

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But what if cleverly structured materials could somehow lower the energy needed for fusion? The duo ran electricity through a rod of palladium in so-called heavy water, a form of water where the hydrogen atoms are replaced with hydrogen's heavier sibling deuterium.

At a press conference on March 23, , Fleischmann and Pons announced that their setup emitted hundreds of times more heat than the chemistry could account for.

Their interpretation: Deuterium nuclei within the palladium were fusing. The news made headlines around the world. Had humankind's energy woes been solved once and for all?

On March 23, , University of Utah chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced their "cold fusion" device to the world—sparking a scientific firestorm.

But for many, excitement quickly gave way to skepticism. Early outside attempts to replicate the results didn't turn up massive amounts of heat, nor did the setup appear to yield many high-energy neutrons, a signature of conventional nuclear fusion.

Therefore we finished our work, published it, and closed the topic. My impression is that most physicists and chemists did the same, regarding cold fusion as an 'interesting' episode.

Ever since, cold fusion largely served as a parable on the perils of irreproducibility. But a small group of researchers and enthusiasts has remained convinced that the phenomenon is real and nuclear in nature, though not necessarily the same thing as fusion.

For a time, Matt Trevithick was part of the club. So when Trevithick eventually ended up on Google's research team as a program manager, he resolved to revisit the nagging question.

By April , Trevithick had identified candidate researchers for the project and invited them to Google's California campus.

None of the researchers knew each other well; it became a day-long guessing game for each to decipher why they had been invited.

The researchers then had several months to brainstorm experiments, which they collectively whittled down to three priorities.

From the beginning, the researchers agreed to rigorously check their work and publish all their results—even when the work came up empty.

The first major experiment aimed to address a key claim within the cold fusion community: If enough deuterium atoms are electrically crammed into a piece of palladium—at least seven for every eight palladium atoms—the device gives off excess heat.

But as the researchers soon realized, packing palladium full of deuterium is extremely difficult, and so is measuring it. In the past, researchers had measured palladium's deuterium content by tracking changes in its electrical resistance.

But when the Google team tried the technique, they noticed errors. So they came up with a new measurement technique : shining x-rays through the palladium to directly see how much the loaded metal had swelled.

The team's second agenda tested whether heating hydrogen with various powdered metals triggers fusion, yielding heat and fusion byproducts.

Italian cold-fusion proponents have made the claim since the s, including Andrea Rossi, the colorful inventor of the E-Cat , a device that Rossi claims is a LENR reactor.

But when researchers tried to replicate Rossi's claims, they realized their tools could easily give inaccurate results at the required temperatures and pressures.

So Berlinguette and his students built four of the world's most precise calorimeters , devices that measure the heat given off by reactions taking place within them.

They then ran separate trials of the experiments—and none of them clearly yielded excess heat. The team will detail their tests in a forthcoming arXiv preprint, Trevithick says in an email.

The third experiment followed up on results reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in the s: that an electrified palladium wire surrounded by a cloud of electrically charged deuterium made certain fusion byproducts , specifically an excess of a heavy, radioactive sibling of hydrogen called tritium.

When Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory physicist Thomas Schenkel and his team tested the claim, they didn't find a spike of excess tritium.

But while fusion reactions are still extremely rare at low energies, they found that fusion occurred a hundred to times more frequently in their experiment than they expected.

Schenkel's team describes the early results in a preprint posted to the arXiv. Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.

In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here.

In August , the U. Hagelstein , [90] : 3 and the publication of many new papers, including the Italian ENEA and other researchers in the International Cold Fusion Conference, [91] and a two-volume book by U.

The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.

While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in , the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review.

The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were: 1 material science aspects of deuterated metals using modern characterization techniques, and 2 the study of particles reportedly emitted from deuterated foils using state-of-the-art apparatus and methods.

The reviewers believed that this field would benefit from the peer-review processes associated with proposal submission to agencies and paper submission to archival journals.

Cold fusion researchers placed a "rosier spin" [92] on the report, noting that they were finally being treated like normal scientists, and that the report had increased interest in the field and caused "a huge upswing in interest in funding cold fusion research.

The grant was intended to support research into the interactions of hydrogen with palladium, nickel or platinum under extreme conditions.

Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the Naval Research Laboratory for 40 years, was named director. He claims that the new experiment has already seen "neutron emissions at similar levels to the observation".

Since the Fleischmann and Pons announcement, the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development ENEA has funded Franco Scaramuzzi's research into whether excess heat can be measured from metals loaded with deuterium gas.

In —, the ENEA started a research program which claimed to have found excess power of up to percent, and in , ENEA hosted the 15th cold fusion conference.

We can't find any reason to propose more money for the coming year or for the future. In the s India stopped its research in cold fusion at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre because of the lack of consensus among mainstream scientists and the US denunciation of the research.

Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, are allowed to leave the cell.

In closed cell experiments, the products are captured, for example by catalytically recombining the products in a separate part of the experimental system.

These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically. There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned off.

The most basic setup of a cold fusion cell consists of two electrodes submerged in a solution containing palladium and heavy water.

The electrodes are then connected to a power source to transmit electricity from one electrode to the other through the solution. The Fleischmann and Pons early findings regarding helium, neutron radiation and tritium were never replicated satisfactorily, and its levels were too low for the claimed heat production and inconsistent with each other.

An excess heat observation is based on an energy balance. Various sources of energy input and output are continuously measured.

Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error. In experiments such as those run by Fleischmann and Pons, an electrolysis cell operating steadily at one temperature transitions to operating at a higher temperature with no increase in applied current.

Unable to produce excess heat or neutrons, and with positive experiments being plagued by errors and giving disparate results, most researchers declared that heat production was not a real effect and ceased working on the experiments.

Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ballistic trajectories.

In support of their claim that nuclear reactions took place in their electrolytic cells, Fleischmann and Pons reported a neutron flux of 4, neutrons per second, as well as detection of tritium.

The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, the production of 10 12 neutrons per second, levels that would have been fatal to the researchers.

Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported as detected by several researchers, like Tadahiko Mizuno or George Miley.

The report presented to the United States Department of Energy DOE in indicated that deuterium-loaded foils could be used to detect fusion reaction products and, although the reviewers found the evidence presented to them as inconclusive, they indicated that those experiments did not use state-of-the-art techniques.

In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.

In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air.

One of the main criticisms of cold fusion was that deuteron-deuteron fusion into helium was expected to result in the production of gamma rays —which were not observed and were not observed in subsequent cold fusion experiments.

Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion. This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes.

However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment.

Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission, [] but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories.

Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: either pointing out the theoretical implausibility that fusion reactions have occurred in electrolysis setups or criticizing the excess heat measurements as being spurious, erroneous, or due to poor methodology or controls.

There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.

Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another. Paneth and Peters in the s already knew that palladium can absorb up to times its own volume of hydrogen gas, storing it at several thousands of times the atmospheric pressure.

This was also the belief of geologist Palmer, who convinced Steven Jones that the helium-3 occurring naturally in Earth perhaps came from fusion involving hydrogen isotopes inside catalysts like nickel and palladium.

Huizenga says they had misinterpreted the Nernst equation , leading them to believe that there was enough pressure to bring deuterons so close to each other that there would be spontaneous fusions.

Conventional deuteron fusion is a two-step process, [text 6] in which an unstable high-energy intermediary is formed:. Experiments have observed only three decay pathways for this excited-state nucleus, with the branching ratio showing the probability that any given intermediate follows a particular pathway.

Only about one in one million of the intermediaries decay along the third pathway, making its products comparatively rare when compared to the other paths.

The known rate of the decay process together with the inter-atomic spacing in a metallic crystal makes heat transfer of the 24 MeV excess energy into the host metal lattice prior to the intermediary 's decay inexplicable in terms of conventional understandings of momentum and energy transfer, [] and even then there would be measurable levels of radiation.

Cold fusion setups utilize an input power source to ostensibly provide activation energy , a platinum group electrode , a deuterium or hydrogen source, a calorimeter , and, at times, detectors to look for byproducts such as helium or neutrons.

Critics have variously taken issue with each of these aspects and have asserted that there has not yet been a consistent reproduction of claimed cold fusion results in either energy output or byproducts.

Some cold fusion researchers who claim that they can consistently measure an excess heat effect have argued that the apparent lack of reproducibility might be attributable to a lack of quality control in the electrode metal or the amount of hydrogen or deuterium loaded in the system.

Critics have further taken issue with what they describe as mistakes or errors of interpretation that cold fusion researchers have made in calorimetry analyses and energy budgets.

In , after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, without success.

A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time. Iyengar and M. Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built exactly the same and used the same materials were not producing the effect.

The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown reasons, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time.

Internal inconsistencies and lack of predictability and reproducibility remain serious concerns. The Panel recommends that the cold fusion research efforts in the area of heat production focus primarily on confirming or disproving reports of excess heat.

Some research groups initially reported that they had replicated the Fleischmann and Pons results but later retracted their reports and offered an alternative explanation for their original positive results.

The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions. Several researchers have described potential mechanisms by which this process could occur and thereby account for excess heat in electrolysis experiments.

Another assumption is that heat loss from the calorimeter maintains the same relationship with measured temperature as found when calibrating the calorimeter.

The ISI identified cold fusion as the scientific topic with the largest number of published papers in , of all scientific disciplines. He tried to publish his theoretical paper "Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis" in Physical Review Letters , but the peer reviewers rejected it so harshly that he felt deeply insulted, and he resigned from the American Physical Society publisher of PRL in protest.

The number of papers sharply declined after because of two simultaneous phenomena: first, scientists abandoned the field; second, journal editors declined to review new papers.

Consequently, cold fusion fell off the ISI charts. The Journal of Fusion Technology FT established a permanent feature in for cold fusion papers, publishing over a dozen papers per year and giving a mainstream outlet for cold fusion researchers.

When editor-in-chief George H. Miley retired in , the journal stopped accepting new cold fusion papers. The decline of publications in cold fusion has been described as a "failed information epidemic".

Cold fusion reports continued to be published in a small cluster of specialized journals like Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Il Nuovo Cimento.

In the Indian multidisciplinary journal Current Science published a special section devoted entirely to cold fusion related papers. In the s, the groups that continued to research cold fusion and their supporters established non-peer-reviewed periodicals such as Fusion Facts , Cold Fusion Magazine , Infinite Energy Magazine and New Energy Times to cover developments in cold fusion and other fringe claims in energy production that were ignored in other venues.

The internet has also become a major means of communication and self-publication for CF researchers. Cold fusion researchers were for many years unable to get papers accepted at scientific meetings, prompting the creation of their own conferences.

Attendees at some of the early conferences were described as offering no criticism to papers and presentations for fear of giving ammunition to external critics, [] thus allowing the proliferation of crackpots and hampering the conduct of serious science.

With the founding in of the International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ISCMNS , [] the conference was renamed the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science [78] [82] [] — for reasons that are detailed in the subsequent research section above — but reverted to the old name in Since , the American Physical Society APS has included cold fusion sessions at their semiannual meetings, clarifying that this does not imply a softening of skepticism.

On 22—25 March , the American Chemical Society meeting included a four-day symposium in conjunction with the 20th anniversary of the announcement of cold fusion.

Researchers working at the U. Although details have not surfaced, it appears that the University of Utah forced the 23 March Fleischmann and Pons announcement to establish priority over the discovery and its patents before the joint publication with Jones.

Hagelstein , who had been sending papers to journals from 5 to 12 April. The U. At least one patent related to cold fusion has been granted by the European Patent Office.

A patent only legally prevents others from using or benefiting from one's invention. However, the general public perceives a patent as a stamp of approval, and a holder of three cold fusion patents said the patents were very valuable and had helped in getting investments.

A Michael Winner film Bullseye! The film — a comedy — concerned conmen trying to steal scientists' purported findings. However, the film had a poor reception, described as "appallingly unfunny".

In Undead Science , sociologist Bart Simon gives some examples of cold fusion in popular culture, saying that some scientists use cold fusion as a synonym for outrageous claims made with no supporting proof, [] and courses of ethics in science give it as an example of pathological science.

The plot of The Saint , a action-adventure film, parallels the story of Fleischmann and Pons, although with a different ending.

Despite the secret being lost with his death at the end of the episode, it is implied that another student elsewhere is on a similar track, and may well repeat Todtman's efforts.

In the Spider-Man episode "Dr. Octopus: Armed and Dangerous," Dr. Octavius's lifelong goal was to create a cold fusion reaction in a battery, to serve as an alternate energy source to nuclear reactors.

However, his attempts to do so resulted in a catastrophic explosion, fusing the robotic tentacles he was using to perform his experiments to his spine, turning him into Dr.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Fleischmann—Pons claims of nuclear fusion at room temperature, and subsequent research.

For the original use of the term "cold fusion", see Muon-catalyzed fusion. For all other definitions, see Cold fusion disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Cold welding. Hypothetical type of nuclear reaction. Beaudette , p. Oriani et al. This had been in the scientific literature since It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light water with lithium.

And this difference is more than enough to account for the heavy water cell running hotter Langmuir, , pp. It has also been applied to the number of published results, in Huizenga , pp.

Sources: " Burden on the Examiner. Durham , Patent law essentials: a concise guide 2, illustrated ed. Sheldon , How to write a patent application illustrated ed.

We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers Daley calculates between and researchers, with damage to their careers.

Archived from the original on 3 November

Cold Fuson - Testen Sie Ihren Wortschatz mit unseren lustigen Bild-Quiz.

Borla A. Sign up for free and get access to exclusive content:. Aus Hansard archive. Wörterbuch Apps. Zurück zum Zitat Ransford HE Non-stellar nucleosynthesis: transition metal production by DC plasma-discharge electrolysis using carbon electrodes in a non-metallic cell. Zurück zum Zitat Preparata G Some theories of cold fusion: a review. Trifft nun ein negativ geladenes Myon auf ein DT-Molekül aus einem Deuterium - und einem Tritiumatom , kann es vorkommen, dass das Myon ein Elektron aus den Molekülorbitalen verdrängt und ein neues Molekülorbital bildet. Cold Fuson Es erscheinen auch begutachtete Fachartikel zum Thema. Research on plasma, atomic Spielmit Com.De, lasers, high-pressure physics, nan-technology, acoustics, and cold fusion has been conducted here. Jetzt informieren. Zurück zum Zitat Ohmori T, Mizuno T, Enyo M Isotopic distributions of heavy metal elements produced during the Spiele Mit Haien water electrolysis on Cold Fuson electrodes. In: The first annual conference on cold fusion.

Therefore we finished our work, published it, and closed the topic. My impression is that most physicists and chemists did the same, regarding cold fusion as an 'interesting' episode.

Ever since, cold fusion largely served as a parable on the perils of irreproducibility. But a small group of researchers and enthusiasts has remained convinced that the phenomenon is real and nuclear in nature, though not necessarily the same thing as fusion.

For a time, Matt Trevithick was part of the club. So when Trevithick eventually ended up on Google's research team as a program manager, he resolved to revisit the nagging question.

By April , Trevithick had identified candidate researchers for the project and invited them to Google's California campus. None of the researchers knew each other well; it became a day-long guessing game for each to decipher why they had been invited.

The researchers then had several months to brainstorm experiments, which they collectively whittled down to three priorities. From the beginning, the researchers agreed to rigorously check their work and publish all their results—even when the work came up empty.

The first major experiment aimed to address a key claim within the cold fusion community: If enough deuterium atoms are electrically crammed into a piece of palladium—at least seven for every eight palladium atoms—the device gives off excess heat.

But as the researchers soon realized, packing palladium full of deuterium is extremely difficult, and so is measuring it. In the past, researchers had measured palladium's deuterium content by tracking changes in its electrical resistance.

But when the Google team tried the technique, they noticed errors. So they came up with a new measurement technique : shining x-rays through the palladium to directly see how much the loaded metal had swelled.

The team's second agenda tested whether heating hydrogen with various powdered metals triggers fusion, yielding heat and fusion byproducts.

Italian cold-fusion proponents have made the claim since the s, including Andrea Rossi, the colorful inventor of the E-Cat , a device that Rossi claims is a LENR reactor.

But when researchers tried to replicate Rossi's claims, they realized their tools could easily give inaccurate results at the required temperatures and pressures.

So Berlinguette and his students built four of the world's most precise calorimeters , devices that measure the heat given off by reactions taking place within them.

They then ran separate trials of the experiments—and none of them clearly yielded excess heat. The team will detail their tests in a forthcoming arXiv preprint, Trevithick says in an email.

The third experiment followed up on results reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in the s: that an electrified palladium wire surrounded by a cloud of electrically charged deuterium made certain fusion byproducts , specifically an excess of a heavy, radioactive sibling of hydrogen called tritium.

With the release of ColdFusion 7. The enterprise edition also added Gateways. XML support was boosted in this version to include native schema checking.

ColdFusion MX 7. More than 14, developers worldwide were active in the beta process - many more testers than the 5, Adobe Systems originally expected.

In addition, the ColdFusion Administrator for the Enterprise version ships with built-in server monitoring.

ColdFusion 9 Codenamed: Centaur was released on October 5, New features for CF9 include:. ColdFusion 10 Codenamed: Zeus was released on May 15, New or improved features available in all editions Standard, Enterprise, and Developer include but are not limited to :.

Additional new or improved features in ColdFusion Enterprise or Developer editions include but are not limited to :. The lists above were obtained from the Adobe web site pages describing "new features", as listed first in the links in the following list.

CF10 was originally referred to by the codename Zeus, after first being confirmed as coming by Adobe at Adobe MAX , and during much of its prerelease period.

For much of , ColdFusion Product Manager Adam Lehman toured the US setting up countless meetings with customers, developers, and user groups to formulate a master blueprint for the next feature set.

In September , he presented the plans to Adobe where they were given full support and approval by upper management. New or improved features available in all editions Standard, Enterprise, and Developer include:.

ColdFusion 11 also removed many features previously identified simply as "deprecated" or no longer supported in earlier releases.

For example, the CFLOG tag long offered date and time attributes which were deprecated and redundant, as the date and time is always logged.

As of July , Adobe had released 10 updates [11] for ColdFusion New or improved features available in all editions Standard, Enterprise, and Developer include: [12].

In Sep , Adobe announced the roadmap anticipating releases in and Among the key features anticipated for the release were a new performance monitor, enhancements to asynchronous programming, revamped REST support, and enhancements to the API Manager, as well as support for CF projected into As for the release, the features anticipated at that time in were configurability modularity of CF application services, revamped scripting and object-oriented support, and further enhancements to the API Manager.

The generated document can then either be saved to disk or sent to the client's browser. ColdFusion was originally not an object-oriented programming language like PHP versions 3 and below.

ColdFusion falls into the category of OO languages that do not support multiple inheritance along with Java, Smalltalk, etc.

Each component may contain any number of properties and methods. One component may also extend another Inheritance. Components only support single inheritance.

Object handling feature set and performance enhancing has occurred with subsequent releases. With the release of ColdFusion 8, Java-style interfaces are supported.

ColdFusion components use the file extension cfc to differentiate them from ColdFusion templates. Component methods may be made available as web services with no additional coding and configuration.

All that is required is for a method's access to be declared 'remote'. Consider the GET request as shown. This will invoke the component's search function, passing "your query" and "strict" as arguments.

This type of invocation is well-suited for Ajax -enabled applications. The ColdFusion server will automatically generate documentation for a component if you navigate to its URL and insert the appropriate code within the component's declarations.

This is an application of component introspection, available to developers of ColdFusion components. Access to a component's documentation requires a password.

ColdFusion provides several ways to implement custom markup language tags, i. These are especially useful for providing a familiar interface for web designers and content authors familiar with HTML but not imperative programming.

Cold fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires.

On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism. Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.

In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here.

In August , the U. Hagelstein , [90] : 3 and the publication of many new papers, including the Italian ENEA and other researchers in the International Cold Fusion Conference, [91] and a two-volume book by U.

The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.

While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in , the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review.

The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were: 1 material science aspects of deuterated metals using modern characterization techniques, and 2 the study of particles reportedly emitted from deuterated foils using state-of-the-art apparatus and methods.

The reviewers believed that this field would benefit from the peer-review processes associated with proposal submission to agencies and paper submission to archival journals.

Cold fusion researchers placed a "rosier spin" [92] on the report, noting that they were finally being treated like normal scientists, and that the report had increased interest in the field and caused "a huge upswing in interest in funding cold fusion research.

The grant was intended to support research into the interactions of hydrogen with palladium, nickel or platinum under extreme conditions.

Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the Naval Research Laboratory for 40 years, was named director.

He claims that the new experiment has already seen "neutron emissions at similar levels to the observation". Since the Fleischmann and Pons announcement, the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development ENEA has funded Franco Scaramuzzi's research into whether excess heat can be measured from metals loaded with deuterium gas.

In —, the ENEA started a research program which claimed to have found excess power of up to percent, and in , ENEA hosted the 15th cold fusion conference.

We can't find any reason to propose more money for the coming year or for the future. In the s India stopped its research in cold fusion at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre because of the lack of consensus among mainstream scientists and the US denunciation of the research.

Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, are allowed to leave the cell.

In closed cell experiments, the products are captured, for example by catalytically recombining the products in a separate part of the experimental system.

These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically.

There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned off. The most basic setup of a cold fusion cell consists of two electrodes submerged in a solution containing palladium and heavy water.

The electrodes are then connected to a power source to transmit electricity from one electrode to the other through the solution.

The Fleischmann and Pons early findings regarding helium, neutron radiation and tritium were never replicated satisfactorily, and its levels were too low for the claimed heat production and inconsistent with each other.

An excess heat observation is based on an energy balance. Various sources of energy input and output are continuously measured. Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error.

In experiments such as those run by Fleischmann and Pons, an electrolysis cell operating steadily at one temperature transitions to operating at a higher temperature with no increase in applied current.

Unable to produce excess heat or neutrons, and with positive experiments being plagued by errors and giving disparate results, most researchers declared that heat production was not a real effect and ceased working on the experiments.

Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ballistic trajectories.

In support of their claim that nuclear reactions took place in their electrolytic cells, Fleischmann and Pons reported a neutron flux of 4, neutrons per second, as well as detection of tritium.

The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, the production of 10 12 neutrons per second, levels that would have been fatal to the researchers.

Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported as detected by several researchers, like Tadahiko Mizuno or George Miley.

The report presented to the United States Department of Energy DOE in indicated that deuterium-loaded foils could be used to detect fusion reaction products and, although the reviewers found the evidence presented to them as inconclusive, they indicated that those experiments did not use state-of-the-art techniques.

In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.

In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air.

One of the main criticisms of cold fusion was that deuteron-deuteron fusion into helium was expected to result in the production of gamma rays —which were not observed and were not observed in subsequent cold fusion experiments.

Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion. This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes.

However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment.

Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission, [] but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories.

Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: either pointing out the theoretical implausibility that fusion reactions have occurred in electrolysis setups or criticizing the excess heat measurements as being spurious, erroneous, or due to poor methodology or controls.

There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.

Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another. Paneth and Peters in the s already knew that palladium can absorb up to times its own volume of hydrogen gas, storing it at several thousands of times the atmospheric pressure.

This was also the belief of geologist Palmer, who convinced Steven Jones that the helium-3 occurring naturally in Earth perhaps came from fusion involving hydrogen isotopes inside catalysts like nickel and palladium.

Huizenga says they had misinterpreted the Nernst equation , leading them to believe that there was enough pressure to bring deuterons so close to each other that there would be spontaneous fusions.

Conventional deuteron fusion is a two-step process, [text 6] in which an unstable high-energy intermediary is formed:.

Experiments have observed only three decay pathways for this excited-state nucleus, with the branching ratio showing the probability that any given intermediate follows a particular pathway.

Only about one in one million of the intermediaries decay along the third pathway, making its products comparatively rare when compared to the other paths.

The known rate of the decay process together with the inter-atomic spacing in a metallic crystal makes heat transfer of the 24 MeV excess energy into the host metal lattice prior to the intermediary 's decay inexplicable in terms of conventional understandings of momentum and energy transfer, [] and even then there would be measurable levels of radiation.

Cold fusion setups utilize an input power source to ostensibly provide activation energy , a platinum group electrode , a deuterium or hydrogen source, a calorimeter , and, at times, detectors to look for byproducts such as helium or neutrons.

Critics have variously taken issue with each of these aspects and have asserted that there has not yet been a consistent reproduction of claimed cold fusion results in either energy output or byproducts.

Some cold fusion researchers who claim that they can consistently measure an excess heat effect have argued that the apparent lack of reproducibility might be attributable to a lack of quality control in the electrode metal or the amount of hydrogen or deuterium loaded in the system.

Critics have further taken issue with what they describe as mistakes or errors of interpretation that cold fusion researchers have made in calorimetry analyses and energy budgets.

In , after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, without success.

A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time. Iyengar and M.

Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built exactly the same and used the same materials were not producing the effect.

The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown reasons, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time.

Internal inconsistencies and lack of predictability and reproducibility remain serious concerns. The Panel recommends that the cold fusion research efforts in the area of heat production focus primarily on confirming or disproving reports of excess heat.

Some research groups initially reported that they had replicated the Fleischmann and Pons results but later retracted their reports and offered an alternative explanation for their original positive results.

The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions. Several researchers have described potential mechanisms by which this process could occur and thereby account for excess heat in electrolysis experiments.

Another assumption is that heat loss from the calorimeter maintains the same relationship with measured temperature as found when calibrating the calorimeter.

The ISI identified cold fusion as the scientific topic with the largest number of published papers in , of all scientific disciplines. He tried to publish his theoretical paper "Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis" in Physical Review Letters , but the peer reviewers rejected it so harshly that he felt deeply insulted, and he resigned from the American Physical Society publisher of PRL in protest.

The number of papers sharply declined after because of two simultaneous phenomena: first, scientists abandoned the field; second, journal editors declined to review new papers.

Consequently, cold fusion fell off the ISI charts. The Journal of Fusion Technology FT established a permanent feature in for cold fusion papers, publishing over a dozen papers per year and giving a mainstream outlet for cold fusion researchers.

When editor-in-chief George H. Miley retired in , the journal stopped accepting new cold fusion papers.

The decline of publications in cold fusion has been described as a "failed information epidemic". Cold fusion reports continued to be published in a small cluster of specialized journals like Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Il Nuovo Cimento.

In the Indian multidisciplinary journal Current Science published a special section devoted entirely to cold fusion related papers.

In the s, the groups that continued to research cold fusion and their supporters established non-peer-reviewed periodicals such as Fusion Facts , Cold Fusion Magazine , Infinite Energy Magazine and New Energy Times to cover developments in cold fusion and other fringe claims in energy production that were ignored in other venues.

The internet has also become a major means of communication and self-publication for CF researchers.

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